union management issues in canada

Sometimes, the needs of employees and employers are consistent: the organization can pay decent wages and provide workers with safe working conditions and job security while still making a satisfactory profit. Canadian Public Sector Union Issues Search this Guide Search. Canada: union coverage rate, by establishment size 2019 U.S. information sector: median weekly earnings 2000-2012, by union representation US information sector: union … If mediation does not result in an agreement, because one or both sides are unwilling to accept the decision of the third party, they may opt instead for arbitration, under which the third party studies the situation and arrives at a binding agreement. First, there has been a shift away from traditional manufacturing industries towards service industries, which are not as likely to be unionized. —complaints over contract-related matters that are resolved by union representatives and employee supervisors. Union organization and membership grew more rapidly in Canada, and for the past several years union members have comprised a considerably larger percentage of the labour force. If everything goes smoothly, a tentative agreement can be reached and then voted on by union members. Since the 1950s the incidence of industrial conflict has also risen far more rapidly in Canada, and has remained at a considerably higher level for more than 20 years. Why Managers Often Resist Unionization Efforts. To achieve a healthy workplace that leads to commitment and engagement, there are some important best practices that can be implemented, jointly, by the union-management partnership. At the bottom are locals that serve workers in a particular geographical area. It is important to note that some unionized workers may not have the right to strike. No union organizing campaign ever started with the premise that by unionizing, employees would receive lower wages or weaker benefit programs. Management should consider several issues when resolving grievances EXCEPT: A. complaints need to be carefully investigated B. decisions need to be based on facts C. only union members should be questioned during the investigation D. a record of the cause of each grievance should be kept E. final solutions should be explained to all involved Some large multinational corporations have a strong anti-union stance, making it more difficult for employees to form unions in those companies. Management Vs Union Needs Mutual Respect Organizational management and employee unions work better together if they both acknowledge that the other has a legitimate and valued purpose. They can also outsource work, eliminating jobs entirely. All rights reserved. If the outcome isn’t satisfactory to the worker, the union can choose to take the problem to higher-level management on his or her behalf. . If unionization threatens higher costs for wages and benefits, management can resort to part-time or contract workers. Read More. All rights reserved. Originally published by the IRC Press in 1996. The process of settling differences and establishing mutually agreeable conditions under which employees will work is called collective bargaining. This includes the right to fair wages, safe working conditions and compensation for injury, and equitable labour relations. Unions often ease the financial pressure on strikers by providing cash payments, which are funded from the dues members pay to the unions. Higher costs can be addressed in several ways. Unions have a pyramidal structure much like that of large corporations. So will membership continue to decline causing unions to lose even more power? In 1983, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent, and there were 17.7 million union workers. —worker complaints on contract-related matters. There are many changes underway: some structural, some attitudinal and some technological. CURRENT ISSUES SERIES This document was digitized in 2013 as part of the Queen’s IRC Archive Revitalization Project. When they go on strike, workers walk away from their jobs and refuse to return until the issue at hand has been resolved. (non-union workers who are willing to cross picket lines to replace strikers). At the bottom are locals that serve workers in a particular geographical area. As in most negotiations, these opening demands simply stake out starting positions. As we saw in “Motivating employees”, Maslow believed that individuals are motivated to satisfy five levels of unmet needs (physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization). Lockout tactics were also used in the 2011 labour dispute between the National Football League (NFL) and the National Football League Players Association when club owners and players failed to reach an agreement on a new contract. 130 St. George St.,Toronto, ON, M5S 1A5 At first, many citizen supported this right, but some of the most noticeable effects of the strike, including the halting of waste collection and the cancellation of summer recreation programming, created widespread concern and negative reactions from the Toronto population.[2]. Management doesn’t typically sit by passively, especially if the company has a position to defend or a message to get out. The owners wanted the players to play two additional regular season games, which the players were against. . Both deal with the exercise of essentially managerial functions, but with markedly dif­ ferent principles. In a non-union environment, the employer makes largely unilateral, i.e., one-sided decisions on issues affecting its labour force, such as salary and benefits. Terry H. Wagar The final tactic available to unions is boycotting, in which union workers refuse to buy a company’s products and try to get other people to follow suit. Union workers operate on a contract which usually covers some agreed-upon, multi-year period. © University of Toronto. Another reason managers sometimes resist unionization is that unions often attempt to negotiate work rules that are to the benefit of their members. The union can do the following. Though the law prohibits companies from permanently replacing striking workers, it’s often possible for a company to get a court injunction that allows it to bring in replacement workers. A union is an organization of employees that is authorized to represent the employees before management for the purpose of negotiating benefits. We must always try to make management bargain over any proposed change, no matter what the Management Rights clause says. The tactics available to the union include striking, picketing, and boycotting. Fundamentals of Business: Canadian Edition by Pamplin College of Business and Virgina Tech Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Both parties usually expect some give-and-take and realize that the final agreement will fall somewhere between the two positions. For example, the NFL employed replacement referees in 2012, a move which led to a number of very questionable calls on the field.[4]. In Canada, the unionization rate fell from 37.6% in 1981 to 28.8% in 2014. Consider some or all of the following five best practices for managing in a unionized workplace: Impact of Economic Downturn on Work & Collective Bargaining, Right to Strike, Essential Services & TTC, Public Sector Unionism - General Resources, Economic Downturn: Its Impact on Work & Collective Bargaining. First, income and wealth inequality have increased in Canada. A mediator’s advice can be accepted or rejected by either side. Organizations also have needs: they need to earn profits that will satisfy their owners. The history of … When non-union workers feel that they’ve been treated unfairly, they can take up the matter with supervisors, who may or may not satisfy their complaints. It is important to note that some unionized workers may not have the right to strike. Consider a metal-plating business that uses dangerous chemicals in its manufacturing processes; wastewater treatment is essential – and expensive. This is the address from which calls will be made using the specified number as Caller ID. If negotiations stall, the sides may call in outsiders. Tell us about a web accessibility problem. The tactic is often used by the Canadian Labour Congress, who often endorse national boycotts. Unions have several options at their disposal to pressure company management into accepting the terms and conditions union members are demanding. (in which workers leave their jobs until the issue is settled), (in which workers congregate outside the workplace to publicize their position). Managers could accept lower profits, though such an outcome is unlikely given that owners/shareholders benefit from higher profits. Home; Canadian Public Sector Union Issues. Certain members are designated as stewards to serve as go-betweens in disputes between workers and supervisors. Case Study: How a Bottle Cap Restored a Reputation (Temporarily), Arts and Crafts for Adults: Collective Beer, The Importance of Small Business to the Canadian Economy, Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Ownership, Why Some Businesses Fail and Where to Get Help, Organizational Structure: How Companies Get the Job Done, The Challenge: Producing Quality Jetboards, Managing the Production Process in a Manufacturing Company, Operations Management for Service Providers, Fundamentals of Business: Canadian Edition, https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2013001/article/11878-eng.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. This subject guide is meant to assist students, particularly those enrolled in IRE1625, with research papers and assignments. Situation in The Federally Regulated Private Sectorfootnote 5 Originally, union officials enjoyed “blanket protection”, as efforts by employers to discipline an employee acting in his capacity as union official were unsuccessful. When unionized workers feel that they’ve been treated unfairly, they can file. Terms and conditions. As we saw in Chapter 11, a reputation for treating employees well, for example, is a key factor in attracting talented people. Many employers are now investing in technology designed to reduce the amount of human labour needed to produce goods or offer services. Business people who have worked in union environments have often complained of the lack of flexibility and the difficulty unions sometimes create in dealing with poor performing union employees. Map The strike lasted from February 2nd to March 7th, and in the end, the workers got what they wanted: fairer wages, work protection and improvements to their health and dental plans.[1]. 1873 – A first attempt at establishing a national trade union centre is made by the founding of the Canadian Labour Union. The demographic makeup of the workplace is undergoing a dramatic shift. —an organized group of workers that bargains with employers to improve its members’ pay, job security, and working conditions. Home; Canadian Public Sector Union Issues. This list of top ten challenges was compiled by the author interacting with credit union executives at more than 500 financial institutions over the last 24 months. For example, strikes by federal employees, such as air-traffic controllers, can be declared illegal if they jeopardize the public interest. Most employers want to avoid the costs involved in managing a unionized workforce; as a result, many offer generous pay and benefit packages in the hopes of keeping their workers happy – and un-unionized. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. The Labour Day holiday, however, was established to recognize the contribution that ordinary working people have made to the Canadian way of life, said Ken Georgetti, president of the Canadian Labour Congress. —closing the workplace to workers—though it’s rarely used because it’s legal only when unionized workers pose a credible threat to the employer’s financial viability. If the outcome isn’t satisfactory to the worker, the union can choose to take the problem to higher-level management on his or her behalf. Union Strategies Inc. supports VoIP 911. Facts about unions Unions The role of unions in the Canadian workplace - Nearly 30% of workers belong to a union - In Canada, they are regulated by provincial and federal legislation - There is said to be over 100 different unions in Canada - All Canadian unions have a Article: Carroll’s Corporate Social Responsibility Pyramid. One available tactic is the lockout—closing the workplace to workers—though it’s rarely used because it’s legal only when unionized workers pose a credible threat to the employer’s financial viability. Union-management consultation is a forum to raise issues, share information, advice and concerns about programs, policies and procedures, with a view to resolving problems and concerns. In fact, many effective union representatives partner with management to achieve company goals. In 2009, approximately 24,000 City of Toronto Municipal Workers, unhappy about wages and loss of the right to bank and cash out unused sick leave, went on a five-week strike. (in which workers and other consumers are urged to refrain from buying an employer’s products). Identify the tactics used by each side to support its negotiating position: strikes, picketing, boycotting, and lockouts. —closing the workplace to workers—or call in. The Public Service Labour Relations Act (PSLRA, Section 8), as promulgated by the Public Service Modernization Act, contains a provision whereby deputy heads must, in consultation with the bargaining agents, establish a consultation committee for the purpose of exchanging information and obtaining views and advice on workplace issues.. When unionized workers have complaints (such as being asked to work more hours than stipulated under their contract), they can call on union representatives to resolve the problem, in conjunction with supervisory personnel, who are part of company management. When this happens, each side may resort to a variety of tactics to win support for its positions and force the opposition to agree to its demands. If there is still no resolution, the union may submit the grievance to an arbitrator. 1889 – Royal Commission on the Relations of Labour and Capital are organized groups of workers that bargain with employers to improve members’ pay, job security, and working conditions. 1880s. We won’t win every one, but by sticking to our rights and having an active membership behind us, we can “train” management to bargain over most working conditions. University of Toronto Libraries Though a strike sends a strong message to management, it also has consequences for workers, who don’t get paid when they’re on strike. ... numerous collective bargaining agreements for a major paper distribution company throughout the United States and Canada. Prior to the 2011 season, the owners imposed a lockout, which prevented the players from practising in team training facilities. When non-union workers feel that they’ve been treated unfairly, they can take up the matter with supervisors, who may or may not satisfy their complaints. The National Farmers Union strongly supports Canada’s supply management system as an important institution of food sovereignty. When there’s a discrepancy between what workers want in terms of salary increases, benefits, working conditions, and job security and what management is willing to give, the two sides engage in a process called, If negotiations break down, the sides may resort to, (in which an impartial third party makes recommendations for reaching an agreement) or. Certain members are designated as stewards to serve as go-betweens in disputes between workers and supervisors. If they accept the agreement, the process is complete and a contract is put into place to govern labour-management relations for a stated period. By comparison, the share of employees covered by a collective bargaining agreement, as calculated by Statistics Canada, was 30.6% in 2015. They start to feel that they are at the mercy of their union and become disillusioned and frustrated. If there is still no resolution, the union may submit the grievance to an arbitrator. Although it grew slightly last year, the proportion of all workers who are union members (the unionization rate) has slowly declined from 38 per cent in the early 1980s to 28.6 per cent last year. 1883 – The Trades and Labour Congress of Canada (TLC), a Canada-wide central federation of trade unions, is formed. In turn, national unions may be linked by a labour federation, such as the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC), which provides assistance to member unions and serves as a principal political organ for organized labour. Given their resistance to being unionized, employers have developed strategies for dissuading workers from unionizing—in particular, tactics for withholding job security. CUPE | 1375 St. Laurent Blvd. Union-management relations in Canada by Morley Gunderson, 1982, Addison-Wesley Press edition, in English Public Sector Labour Management Issues (IRE 1625) This subject guide is meant to assist students, particularly those enrolled in IRE1625, with research papers and assignments. The American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial Organization (AFL-CIO) is optimistic about union membership, pointing out recent gains in membership among women and immigrants, as well as health care workers, graduate students, and professionals.[5]. they could find other ways to offset the increase in costs, but since managers are already supposed to be paying attention to costs, finding offsets can be quite difficult. Please note that VoIP 911 depends on your Internet working and your phone device being registered and ready to make calls. The key difference between mediation and arbitration is the word “binding” – whatever the third party says goes, because both the union and management have agreed to accept the decision of the third party as a condition of entering into the arbitration process. Still, Canada’s unionization rate remains far higher than the US, where it dropped to 11 per cent, which is about half what it was in the early 1980s. Canada’s Leader: Passing or Failing the “Smell Test”? Public Sector Labour Management Issues (IRE 1625). If you are a fan of professional basketball, you may remember the NBA lockout in 2011 (older fans may remember a similar scenario that took place in 1999) which took place because of a dispute regarding the division of revenues and the structure of the salary cap. It is interesting to note that this trend is not true for women in the workforce, where the participation rate has been fairly steady over that same 30 year period. At times, labour and management can’t resolve their differences through collective bargaining or formal grievance procedures. Together, all of these changes directly affect how management interacts with employees and unions. libraryhelp@utoronto.ca For example, strikes by federal employees, such as air-traffic controllers, can be declared illegal if they jeopardize the public interest. When a given contract period begins to approach expiration, union representatives determine with members what they want in terms of salary increases, benefits, working conditions, and job security in their next contract. members pay to the unions. From this perspective, employees hope that full-time work will satisfy at least the two lowest-level needs: they want to be paid wages that are sufficient for them to feed, house, and clothe themselves and their families, and they expect safe working conditions and hope for some degree of job security. “Lots of people lost their lives in order to establish the right to refuse unsafe work and the right to be treated fairly and without discrimination,” said Georgetti. “We’ve done a lot and we’re very proud of it.”, Union membership in Canada and the United States have been declining for some time. (in which the third party imposes a binding agreement). Customers must provide Union Strategies Inc. their 911 service address. Supply management is a unique Canadian institution that helps us avoid wide fluctuations in supply and prices, without requiring massive government subsidies to support farmers’ incomes in these sectors. Contact information. Discuss key terms associated with union/management issues, such as mediation and arbitration. Canadian Union Of Public Employees videos and latest news articles; GlobalNews.ca your source for the latest news on Canadian Union Of Public Employees . Source: Statistics Canada https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2013001/article/11878-eng.htm. Most supervisors and managers do not know their rights and do not have the skills to manage these issues when they arise. If you are a fan of professional basketball, you may remember the NBA lockout in 2011 (older fans may remember a similar scenario that took place in 1999) which took place because of a dispute regarding the division of revenues and the structure of the salary cap. Expanded eBook Access During COVID-19 Closures, https://guides.library.utoronto.ca/publicsectorlabourmanagement. Studies of two collective bargaining issues are combined in this bulletin— management rights provisions, and union-management cooperation provisions. If workers reject the agreement, negotiators from both sides must go back to the bargaining table. For example, instead of each employee being treated individually by management when it comes to what they are paid, the union bosses represent all the employees at the same time and negotiate levels of pay that apply to everyone. Alternatively. Explain why workers unionize and how unions are structured, and describe the collective-bargaining process. When it comes to call centers, where problems like poor attendance and waning morale are endemic to the industry, a partnership that brings more solutions to the table is invaluable. The modern workplace is vastly different than that experienced even a short while ago. Management controls the resources and work environment of an organization while unions represent employees in getting the best terms and conditions of employment. Excerpted from CBC’s Highlights in Canadian Labour History, P. Philips writes: Celebrated across the country, the holiday is often thought of as the last hurrah before kids head back to school and the long, hot days of summer give way to the crisp, fading days of autumn. Another difference between union and non-union environments is the handling of grievances—worker complaints on contract-related matters. , such as the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC), which provides assistance to member unions and serves as a principal political organ for organized labour. Unions have a pyramidal structure much like that of large corporations. In addition, because other union workers typically won’t cross picket lines, marchers can sometimes interrupt the daily activities of the targeted organization. Build Worker Power The labour movement was created by people standing up together for fair wages, safe workplaces and decent work hours. Both sides had their demands: the players wanted a greater percentage of the revenues, which the owners were against. [3], Another management tactic is replacing striking workers with strikebreakers—non-union workers who are willing to cross picket lines to replace strikers. The following chart demonstrates that there has been an overall decrease in the percentage of workers in Canada who are union members from 1981 to 2012. Labour arbitrators took the position that union officials could never be disciplined because, otherwise, they would not be able to carry out their official duties effectively. Union dues-paying workers comprised 31.8% of all employees in Canada in 2015, an increase of 0.3 percentage points from 2014 . Not surprisingly, then, business managers resist unions because they generally add to the cost of doing business. Locals are usually organized into national unions that assist with local contract negotiations, organize new locals, negotiate contracts for entire industries, and lobby government bodies on issues of importance to organized labour. The grievance process can sometimes be long, cumbersome, and costly to administer. When there’s a discrepancy between what workers want and what management is willing to give—as there usually is—union officials serve as negotiators on behalf of their workforce, with the objective of extracting the best package of salary, benefits, and other conditions possible. If labour differences can’t be resolved through collective bargaining or formal grievance procedures, each side may resort to a variety of tactics. 416-978-8450 But Labour Day is more than just the unofficial end to summer — a fact many Canadians tend to forget. About online privacy and data collection. There are millions of union members in Canada who know that by standing together, they can accomplish great things for themselves and all workers. They need to keep other stakeholders satisfied as well, which can cost money. Union Issues 2019 Union Plus Scholarships Award $170,000 to Union Members and Families June 24, 2019. As undergraduates at York University discovered when they arrived on campus in 2007, the effects of a strike can engulf parties other than employers and strikers: with two-hundred food services workers on strike, students had to scramble to find food at local mini-markets. At the same time, however, employers have a vested interest in treating workers fairly. It later dissolves in 1878. When unionized workers have complaints (such as being asked to work more hours than stipulated under their contract), they can call on union representatives to resolve the problem, in conjunction with supervisory personnel, who are part of company management. In turn, national … In management rights clauses, management in effect stakes out At other times, there is a conflict—real, perceived, or a little bit of both—between the needs of employees and those of employers. labour dispute videos and latest news articles; GlobalNews.ca your source for the latest news on labour dispute . Our union-management relations practice includes the representation of employers regarding unfair labor practice proceedings, grievance/arbitration matters and strike injunction cases. When you see workers parading with signs outside a factory or an office building (or even a school), they’re probably using the tactic known as picketing (see Figure). About web accessibility. Public Sector Labour Management Issues (IRE 1625) This subject guide is meant to assist students, particularly those enrolled in IRE1625, with research papers and assignments. Than it used to be unionized while unions represent employees in getting the best terms and conditions of.! Resolution, the union may submit the grievance to an arbitrator papers and assignments picket... Another management tactic is replacing striking workers with strikebreakers—non-union workers who are to! A particular geographical area with employees and unions describe the collective-bargaining process other consumers urged. 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