chapter 4: sensation and perception

In this chapter we will discuss the strengths and limitations of these capacities, focusing on both sensation—awareness resulting from the stimulation of a sense organ, and perception—the organization and interpretation of sensations. Steps of Sensation to Perception 1) Stimulus 2) Sensation (sensory receptors DETECT a stimulus) 3) Sensory Coding (stimulus TRANSDUCED - translated into chem/elec signals transmitted to the brain) 4) Perception (neural sigs processed and representation made in brain) Perception is the interpretation of that information. determines brightness synesthesia "mixing of the senses"-routine blending of sensory experiences. This concept says that the size of JND is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus; the JND is large when the stimulus intensity is high and is small when the stimulus intensity is low. Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception - StuDocu. Write. The number of vibrations or cycles the wave completes in a given amount of time. A thin strip of tissue sensitive to vibrations in the cochlea. Sensation and perception work seamlessly together to allow us to experience the world through our eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, but also to combine what we are … The quality of a sound wave that derives from the wave's complexity. A psychological sensation caused by the intensity of light waves. Psych. Spell. Match. Information taken in by both eyes that aids in depth perception, including binocular convergence and retinal disparity. Sign inRegister. Start studying Chapter 4-Sensation and Perception. Also called hue. chapter sensation and perception are some aspects of processing innate? Chapter 4: Sensation & Perception Sensation: receiving physical stimulation, encoding the input into the nervous system; The processes by which our sensory organs receive information from the environment. Sensation and perception work seamlessly together to allow us to detect both the presence of, and changes in, the stimuli around us. Terms from unit on sensation and perception in AP Psychology. Aboukhadijeh, Feross. Color is not a property of things int he external world. Factors that influence how we group objects: objects close together → perceived as belonging to the same group, objects are similar in appearance → perceived as part of the same group, objects that form a continuous form are grouped together, objects that make up a recognizable image are grouped, even if the mind needs to fill in gaps, our ability to maintain a constant perception of an object even as sensation from it changes, we keep a constant size in mind for an object if we’re familiar with it, we know it doesn’t grow or shrink as distance changes, we know the shape of an object remains constant, even as retinal images change, we perceive objects as being a constant color even as the light reflected from them changes, Our brains can perceive objects at rest to be moving, images in a series of still pictures presented at a certain speed seem to move (flip books), a series of light bulbs turned on and off at a particular rate appear to be one moving light, spot of light is projected on a wall in a dark room, an infant that can crawl won’t cross the cliff, objects that block the view to other objects must be closer, we can see more details in the texture of objects that are closer, the closer the object, the more disparity there will be between the images from each eye, the more the eyes converge, the closer the object must be, Some basic perceptual sets are learned from culture, Chapter 11: Testing and Individual Differences, Chapter 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders. Sociology Midterm. The thin, light-sensitive layer t the back of the eyeball. Sensation is the conversion of energy from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system. Sensory messages are transformed into neural impulses, then sent to the thalamus, which sends them to other parts of the brain, Decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation, Our perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them, Your attention involuntarily switches to them, the process of understanding these sensations, light is reflected off of objects and gathered by the eye, intensity- how much energy the light contains. Unit 4: Sensation and Perception . It is unclear whether or not humans employ phermones. The amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected. The figure stands out against the ground. The point where the optic nerve exits the eye and where there are no photoreceptors. Sensation and perception are two separate processes that are very closely related. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. The tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina. Psychology Chapter 4: Sensation & Perception. ex) "see" temperatures, "taste" shapes. Photoreceptors in the retina that are especially sensitive to dim light but not to colors. An explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural "gate" that can, under some circumstances, block incoming pain signals. Perception: the process by which people select, organize, and interpret (recognize) the sensory information, the act of understanding what the Ch. The sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Where a sound wave causes the hair cells to vibrate, the associated neurons become excited. Critical Thinking Lesson 4: Personal Experience and Coincidence; Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness. A sensory characteristic of sound produced by the frequency of the sound wave. 01 Jan. 2021. Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception - Psychology 100 with Adam Buffington at The Ohio State University - StudyBlue Flashcards A genetic disorder that prevents an individual from discriminating certain colors. STUDY. The most common form is red-green color blindness. An inability to hear resulting from damage to structures of the middle or inner ear. (Chapters 5 & 6 in Myers 7e) Terms in this set (103) Sensation. Light-sensitive cells in the retina that convert light energy to neural impulses. Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception What’s the Difference? Play this game to review Psychology. A process that makes sensory patterns meaningful. Study Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception flashcards from Edeana Greig 's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Sensation and perception work seamlessly together to allow us to experience the world through our eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, but also to combine what we are currently learning from the environment with what we already know about it to make judgments and to choose appropriate behaviors. Nice work! The retina contains millions of photoreceptors and other nerve cells. The part of a pattern that does not command attention. The tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes our sensitive. Test. Perceptual analysis that emphasizes the perceiver's expectations, concept memories and other cognitive factors, rather than being driven by the characteristics of the stimulus. ryn_g. The magnitude of a stimulus can be estimated by the formula S=k log R, where S=sensation, R=stimulus, and K=a constant that differs for each sensory modality (sight, touch, temperature, etc.). Cells in the cortex that specialize in extracting certain features of a stimulus. ryn_g. perception. Study Flashcards On Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception (Lecture notes) at Cram.com. PLAY. The Gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion or destination. Refers to the process used by the brain to combine the results of many sensory operations into a single percept. Gravity. Phermones are often used by animals as sexual attractants. 136 terms. The idea that cells in the visual system process colors in complementary pairs, such as red or green or as yellow or blue. recognition of the human face fantz is there an innate response for an infant to. the process of detecting, converting, and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain. Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception. (p. 138) Sensations Is the stimulation of our sense organs. Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Textbook Quiz for Psych 1020 Explains how we detect "signals," consisting of stimulation affecting our eyes, ears, nose, skin, and other sense organs. Images that are capable of more than one interpretation. Perception is the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. View Chapter 4 - perception and sensation.docx from PSYC 1000 at University of Guelph. HMT302 – Psychology Instructor: Ms. Aliya Khalid CHAPTER 4: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Sensation and perception are two separate processes that are very closely related. Sensation is It is perception that makes these words meaningful, rather than just a string of visual patterns. Perceptual analysis that emphasizes characteristics of the stimulus, rather than our concepts and expectations. A law of magnitude estimation that is more accurate than Fechner's law and covers a wider variety of stimuli. measure of physical strength of sound wave. determines brightness, determines how much light gets in the eye by controlling the size of the pupil, through accommodation, light that enters the pupil is focused by it, as light passes through it, the image is flipped upside down and inverted, the focused inverted image projects on it, occurs when light activates neurons in the retina, cones- activated by color, clustered around the fovea, rods- peripheral vision, respond to black and white, outnumber cones, when enough cones and rods fire, they activate the next layer of bipolar cells, if enough bipolar cells fire, the next layer of ganglion cells is activated, ​the axons of it form the optic nerve that sends impulses to the LGN, impulses from the left side of each retina go to the left hemisphere of the brain, right right, optic chiasm- spot where the nerves cross each other, impulses travel from the retina to the visual cortex to them, visual perception is a combination of all features, these are activated in combinations to produce other colors, can’t explain afterimages or color blindness, the sensory receptors arranged in the retina come in pairs, when one sensor is stimulated, the other is inhibited from firing, created by vibrations which travel through the air, sound waves are collected in the pinna (outer ear), they reach the eardrum (tympanic membrane), a thin membrane that vibrates as sound waves hit it, connects with the hammer (malleus) which is connected to the anvil (incus) which connects to the stirrup (stapes), the ossicles transmit the vibrations to the oval window, attached to cochlea, which is shaped like a snail’s shell and filled with fluid, as the oval window vibrates, the fluid moves, hair cells on the basilar membrane (floor of cochlea) move, the hair cells are connected to the organ of corti (neurons activated by movement of hair cells), auditory nerve sends these impulses to the brain, hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located, better explains how we sense higher pitches, problem with the system of conducting the sound to the cochlea, in ear canal, eardrum, ossicles, or oval window, Some nerve endings respond to temperature, others to pressure, Our brain interprets the amount of indentation (temperature change) as intensity of touch, Nerve endings are very concentrated in the fingertips, Pain receptors will fire when other receptors are stimulated sharply, some pain messages have a higher priority, gate is open to it, and shut to lower priority messages, Chemicals from food are absorbed by taste buds, some taste buds respond more intensely to one, the more densely packed the taste buds, the more chemical absorbed → intense taste, molecules of substances rise into the air, gathers messages from the olfactory receptor cells, nerve fibers from it connect to the brain at the amygdale and hippocampus, Tells us about how our body is oriented in space, give brain feedback about body orientation, Gives us feedback about the position and orientation of specific body parts, The study of the interaction between the sensations we receive and our experience of them, the minimum amount of stimulus we can detect 50% of the time, Difference threshold (just noticeable difference), smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we detect a change, the change needed is proportional to the intensity of the original stimulus, Investigates the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world, Tries to predict what we’ll perceive among competing stimuli, also called receiver operating characteristics, we think we perceive a stimulus that isn’t there, not perceiving a stimulus that is present, We perceive by filling in gaps in what we sense with background knowledge, mental representations of how we expect the world to be, a predisposition to perceive something in a certain way, supposed hidden messages musicians played backwards in their music, Perception starts at the bottom with the individual characteristics of the image, Puts characteristics together into our final perception, We normally perceive objects as groups, not isolated elements. 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